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Cs50 library python

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I have background in Java and I am new to Python. I want to make sure I understand correctly Python terminology before I go ahead. My understanding of a module is: a script which can be imported by many scripts, to make reading easier. Just like in java you have a class, and that class can be imported by many other classes. My understanding of a library is: A library contains many modules which are separated by its use.

My question is: Are libraries like packages, where you have a package e. Also, an application programming interface API usually contains a set of libraries is this at the top of the hierarchy:. A module is a file containing Python definitions and statements. The file name is the module name with the suffix.

cs50 library python

If you read the documentation for the import statement gives more details, for example:. Python has only one type of module objectand all modules are of this type, regardless of whether the module is implemented in Python, C, or something else. To help organize modules and provide a naming hierarchy, Python has a concept of packages.

Like file system directories, packages are organized hierarchically, and packages may themselves contain subpackages, as well as regular modules.

Or put another way, packages are just a special kind of module.

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Hence the term module refers to a specific entity: it's a class whose instances are the module objects you use in python programs. It is also used, by analogy, to refer to the file in the file system from which these instances "are created".

The term script is used to refer to a module whose aim is to be executed. It has the same meaning as "program" or "application", but it is usually used to describe simple and small programs i. Writing a script takes minutes or few hours. The term library is simply a generic term for a bunch of code that was designed with the aim of being usable by many applications.

It provides some generic functionality that can be used by specific applications. Often libraries contain a package or multiple related packages, but it could be even a single module. In any case an API is not python code. It's a description which may be more or less formal.

An API is not a collection of code per se - it is more like a "protocol" specification how various parts usually libraries communicate with each other. There are a few notable "standard" APIs in python. In my opinion, a library is anything that is not an application - in python, a library is a module - usually with submodules. The scope of a library is quite variable - for example the python standard library is vast with quite a few submodules while there are lots of single purpose libraries in the PyPi, e.

A package is a collection of python modules under a common namespace. A module is a single file of python code that is meant to be imported. This is a bit of a simplification since in practice quite a few modules detect when they are run as script and do something special in that case. A script is a single file of python code that is meant to be executed as the 'main' program. If you have a set of code that spans multiple files, you probably have an application instead of script. Module : Each of a set of standardized parts or independent units that can be used to construct a more complex structure.GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together.

Join them to grow your own development teams, manage permissions, and collaborate on projects. This is check50, a command-line program with which you can check the correctness of your programs. Python 93 This is compare50, a fast and extensible plagiarism detection tool. Python 39 These are CS50 documents. HTML C This is CS50's library for Python. Python This is submit50, CS50's command-line tool for submitting problems. Python 95 This is lib50, CS50's own internal library used in many of its tools.

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This is cs50 's theme for Jekyll. Dockerfiles for the mailman suite. This is help50, a command-line tool that helps students understand error messages. This is CS50's command-line interface. Skip to content. Sign up. Pinned repositories. Type: All Select type. All Sources Forks Archived Mirrors. Select language. Repositories submit50 This is submit50, CS50's command-line tool for submitting problems.

Python GPL CSS 34 9 11 1 Updated Jul 13, By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. The first one is using Text at the beginning not standard, by the way vs text. That should help you out quite a bit. But, assuming not, let's briefly step through it. Now, maybe there is something specific you are to use in the cs50 library but I used input -- and changed Text to lower case.

There are a couple of problems with the way program counts words. It is doing so by counting spaces good planbut. It hasn't failed in testing because no tested texts end with a space. If you want to see it fail, enter a text that ends with a space. Learn more. Asked 4 months ago. Active 1 month ago. Viewed 3k times. You need to format the code in the question. Further, please edit in a description of "it didn't".

Provide an example of: the inputted text, the result you expected and the result program gave. Thank you. Active Oldest Votes. You have a couple issues here: The first one is using Text at the beginning not standard, by the way vs text.

Conda environment or pip install with cs50 and run that: Runs fine with no errors. But you were on the right path. It is doing so by counting spaces good planbut How will it count the last word? It won't because it's not "followed by" a space. You could consider initializing word to 1 instead of 0. Will it count words in the following passage correctly? Again, no. This if text[i]. In this case, it will not count the space after "Alice", so word count is incorrect.

New to New to 1. Welcome to SO! Please improve formatting of your answer.Start a discussion with classmates. Marioless comfortable, in a file called mario. Mariomore comfortable, in a file called mario. Greedyless comfortable, in a file called greedy. Creditmore comfortable, in a file called credit. Caesarless comfortable, in a file called caesar. Crackmore comfortable, in a file called crack.

If a program is in a file called, say, foo. It is not reasonable to look at others' implementations of the same in Python. It is not reasonable to look at others' implementations of Sentiments.

cs50 library python

Consider this problem set an opportunity not only to port your own prior work from C to Python but to improve upon your earlier designs using lessons learned since! Insofar as a goal of this problem set is to teach you how to teach yourself a new language, keep in mind that these acts are not only reasonableper the syllabus, but encouraged toward that end:.

Incorporating a few lines of code that you find online or elsewhere into your own code, provided that those lines are not themselves solutions to assigned problems and that you cite the lines' origins. Just remember to include. Or you can use input and validate users' input yourself. Table of Contents. Port some programs from C to Python.

Analyze some sentiments. Submit a form. Implement either of the below exactly as specified but in Python: Marioless comfortable, in a file called mario. Hints Be sure to use Python 3, not Python 2. Insofar as a goal of this problem set is to teach you how to teach yourself a new language, keep in mind that these acts are not only reasonableper the syllabus, but encouraged toward that end: Incorporating a few lines of code that you find online or elsewhere into your own code, provided that those lines are not themselves solutions to assigned problems and that you cite the lines' origins.

Walkthroughs Mario less comfortable. Sentiments See Sentiments. Step 2 of 2 Submit this form!Post questions and search answers in CS50 Discuss.

Marioless comfortable, in a file called mario. Mariomore comfortable, in a file called mario. Greedyless comfortable, in a file called greedy. Creditmore comfortable, in a file called credit. Caesarless comfortable, in a file called caesar. Crackmore comfortable, in a file called crack. If a program is in a file called, say, foo. It is not reasonable to look at others' implementations of the same in Python. It is not reasonable to look at others' implementations of Sentiments.

Consider this problem set an opportunity not only to port your own prior work from C to Python but to improve upon your earlier designs using lessons learned since! Insofar as a goal of this problem set is to teach you how to teach yourself a new language, keep in mind that these acts are not only reasonableper the syllabus, but encouraged toward that end:.

Incorporating a few lines of code that you find online or elsewhere into your own code, provided that those lines are not themselves solutions to assigned problems and that you cite the lines' origins.

Just remember to include. Or you can use input and validate users' input yourself.

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If seeing this error for cs Table of Contents. Port some programs from C to Python. Analyze some sentiments. Submit a form. Attend course-wide office hours. Implement either of the below exactly as specified but in Python: Marioless comfortable, in a file called mario.

Hints Be sure to use Python 3, not Python 2. Insofar as a goal of this problem set is to teach you how to teach yourself a new language, keep in mind that these acts are not only reasonableper the syllabus, but encouraged toward that end: Incorporating a few lines of code that you find online or elsewhere into your own code, provided that those lines are not themselves solutions to assigned problems and that you cite the lines' origins.

Problem 4 See Sentiments. ImportError: No module named 'sqlalchemy' If seeing this error, execute.One of the simplest ways we can run tests in Python is by using the assert command. This command is followed by some expression that should be True.

If the expression is Truenothing will happen, and if it is Falsean exception will be thrown. When the function is written correctly, nothing happens as the assert is True. As you begin building larger projects, you may want to consider using test-driven developmenta development style where every time you fix a bug, you add a test that checks for that bug to a growing set of tests that are run every time you make changes. We can see from the output above that 5 and 10 were correctly identified as prime and not prime, but 25 was incorrectly identified as prime, so there must be something wrong with our function.

One way we can do this is by creating a shell scriptor some script that can be run inside our terminal. These files require a. Each of the lines below consists of. Now we can run these commands by running. Even though we were able to run tests automatically using the above method, we still might want to avoid having to write out each of those tests. Thankfully, we can use the Python unittest library to make this process a little bit easier.

Notice that each of the functions within our Tests class followed a pattern:. After running the tests, unittest provides us with some useful information about what it found.

In the first line, it gives us a series of. And finally, we are given a run through of how many tests were run, how much time they took, and how many failed:. It turns out that we need to test one additional number in our for loop. For example, when n is 25the square root is 5but when that is one argument in the range function, the for loop terminates at the number 4. Therefore, we can simply change the header of our for loop to:.

Now, when we run the tests again using our unit tests, we get the following output, indicating that our change fixed the bug. These automated tests will become even more useful as you work to optimize this function. In order to make sure our application works as expected, whenever we create a new application, we are automatically given a tests. One advantage to using the TestCase library is that when we run our tests, an entirely new database will be created for testing purposes only.

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The output for this is almost identical to the output we saw while using the Python unittest library, although it also logs that it is creating and destroying a testing database:. We can see, upon further inspection of our function, that we made the mistake of using or instead of andmeaning that only one of the flight requirements must be filled for the flight to be valid.

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If we change the function to this:. When creating web applications, we will probably want to check not just whether or not specific functions work, but also whether or not individual web pages load as intended. We can do this by creating a Client object in our Django testing class, and then making requests using that object.

Notice that we use the Max function to find the maximum idwhich we have access to by including from django.

Now if we wish to test this code, we could just open up our web browser, click the two buttons, and observe what happens.

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This, however, would become very tedious as you write larger and larger single page applications, which is why several frameworks have been created that help with in-browser testing, one of which is called Selenium.

Our main tool when doing this is known as a Web Driverwhich will open up a web browser on your computer. Note that below we use both selenium and ChromeDriver. Selenium can be installed for python by running pip install seleniumand ChromeDriver can be installed by running pip install chromedriver-py.

The above code is all of the basic setup we need, so now we can get into some more interesting uses by employing the Python interpreter. Now, if we run python tests.GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again.

If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. Skip to content. This is CS50's library for Python. MIT License. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

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cs50 library python

Git stats commits 2 branches 29 tags. Failed to load latest commit information. Jun 12, Messed up the tests for Travis CI again. Jun 5, May 27, Feb 20, Add license. Jul 13, Jul 6, View code. About This is CS50's library for Python. Releases 29 v5.


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